Guidelines for the Use of Transesophageal Echocardiography to Assist with Surgical Decision-Making in the Operating Room: A Surgery-Based Approach  (J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2020;33:692-734.)

Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography is a standard diagnostic and monitoring tool employed in the management of patients undergoing an entire spectrum of cardiac surgical procedures, ranging from ‘‘routine’’ surgical coronary revascularization to complex valve repair, combined procedures, and organ transplantation. Utilizing a protocol as a starting point for imaging in all procedures and all patients enables standardization of image acquisition, reduction in variability in quality of imaging and reporting, and ultimately better patient care. Clear communication of the echocardiographic findings to the surgical team, as well as understanding the impact of new findings on the surgical plan, are paramount. Equally important is the need for complete understanding of the technical steps of the surgical procedures being performed and the complications that may occur, in order to direct the postprocedure evaluation toward aspects directly related to the surgical procedure and to provide pertinent echocardiographic information. The rationale for this document is to outline a systematic approach describing how to apply the existing guidelines to questions on cardiac structure and function specific to the intraoperative environment in open, minimally invasive, or hybrid cardiac surgery procedures. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2020;33:692-734.)

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